Saturday, December 7, 2019

Current Economic Status Of Malaysia Essay Research free essay sample

Current Economic Status Of Malaysia Essay, Research Paper Private Sector PopulationThe outstanding feature of Malaysia # 8217 ; s population today is its extremely variegated cultural @ mix shapers it one of the premier illustrations of a multi-racial society in the whole universe. The @ multiethnic character of Malaysia # 8217 ; s population has come into being over the class of the @ last 150 old ages. Broadly talking Malaysia # 8217 ; s cultural groups fall into two chief classs: @ those with civilization affinities autochthonal to the part and to one another, who are classified as bumiputera ; and those whose cultural affinities lie outside. Malaysia is a multi-cultural state of friendly, warm hearted people. It has population of 17.9 @ million people. Penisular Malaysia has 14.6 million people while Sabah and Sarawak have 3.3 @ million people. Agriculture, Forestry, FishingThe agricultural sector ( including forestry and fishing ) plays an of import function in the economic system although its portion of the GDP has declined from 34 per centum in 1987 to 18. 6 per centum in 1992. This sector contributed about 29 per centum to Malaysia # 8217 ; s entire exports and employed about 30 per centum of the entire labour force. Malaysia is the universe # 8217 ; s taking manufacturer of natural gum elastic and a major manufacturer of many other exportable trade goods including palm oil, chocolate and Piper nigrum. Other of import hard currency harvests include coconuts, tea and Ananas comosuss. The chief subsistence harvest is rice. However, Malaysia is still non self sufficient in rice and local production accounted for merely about 80 per centum of domestic demands. The National Padi and Rice Authority ( LPN ) , the exclusive importer of rice, imported rice from Thailand, Pakistan, India and Australia. Malaysia besides has significant supplies of tropical hardwoods. Sarawak is the chief lumber manufacturer ( 43 per centum ) , followed by Sabah ( 26 per centum ) and Peninsular Malaysia. After three back-to-back old ages of diminution, there wa s an addition in marine fish landings in 1987. This was due to the debut of inducements by the authorities to promote deep sea fishing activity. The Malaysian is besides advancing the development of aquaculture Centres to supplement decreasing marine resources in coastal countries and to increase fishermen # 8217 ; s income. MiningThe excavation sector # 8217 ; s portion of GDP has remained in the part of 9-10 per centum over the past old ages. Malaysia is presently the universe # 8217 ; s 4th largest manufacturer of Sn, accounting for about 15 per centum of universe production. Malaysia # 8217 ; s other minerals include Cu, which is mined in Sabah and comparatively little militias of Fe and bauxite. The chief export markets for Malaysia # 8217 ; s Sn were the Netherlands, Japan and USA. Exports of Sn amounted to M $ 684 million in 1991 compared to M $ 902 million in 1990. ManufacturingThe fabrication sector has replaced the agricultural sector to be the taking sector in the Ma layan economic system since 1987. It accounted for 26.8 per centum of GDP in 1992 and employed about 17 per centum of the working population. The Malayan authorities has accorded top precedence to this sector. Under the Sixth Malaysia Plan ( 1991-95 ) the fabrication sector is expected to account for 32.4 per centum of Malaysia # 8217 ; s GDP by 1995 and it will keep its place as the largest sector of the economic system. Output of the fabrication sector is projected to increase at an one-year mean rate of 7.9 per centum during 1986-95 and the taking growing sectors are expected to be electrical and electronic merchandises, fabrics, machinery and conveyance equipment and basic metal merchandises. Peninsular Malaysia histories for about 90 per centum of the state # 8217 ; s entire fabrication end product. Malaysia is presently the universe # 8217 ; s largest manufacturer of semi-conductors and the 2nd largest manufacturer of room air-conditioners. General Description of Economy Ma laysia has a comparatively unfastened, market-oriented economic system ; existent GDP has grown between 6 and 8 per centum per twelvemonth from 1964-1984. Since independency in 1957 the Malayan economic system has shown sustained growing and has diversified off from the duplicate pillars of the colonial economic system, Sn and gum elastic. In 1985-1986, the prostration of trade good monetary values led to Malaysia # 8217 ; s worst recession since independency, with existent GDP falling one per centum. Since so, the economic system has rebounded, led by strong growing in both foreign and domestic investing and exports of industries, with existent GDP turning at an mean rate of over 8percent. In 1995 existent GDP growing reached about 9.6 per centum. After a decennary of such sustained economic growing, during which existent GDP increased in surplus of 8 % yearly, Malaysia # 8217 ; s economic system at mid-year 1998 was headed for recession. Real GDP contracted by 1.8 % in the first one-fourth, year-on-year, the first quarterly contraction since 1985. By old ages end the authorities announced that the GDP had contracted by about 2 % . Malaysia since July 1997 has been buffeted by the economic and fiscal downswing that presently plaques most of Asia. Despite stronger basicss relative to its neighbours, turning investor concerns over inordinate commercial belongings investing, high degrees of domestic corporate debt, government-funded megaprojects, and the deficiency of crystalline policies sing support for troubled houses contributed to enter diminutions in the local stock market and value of the Malayan currency. As of mid-July 1998, portions on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange were merchandising at 9-year depressions, with the KLSE Composite Index good below 450. The ringgit has slid from RM2.5 to approximately RM4.2 against the US dollar in the span of 12 months. The ringgit presently is presently traded at approximately 3.5 to the dollar. Role Of Government General Policy Framework While the authorities plays a diminishing function as a manufacturer of goods and services, it continues to keep equity bets ( sometimes important 1s ) in a broad scope of domestic companies. These entities are seldom monopolies ; alternatively, they are one ( by and large the largest ) participant among several rivals in a given sector. Government-owned entities are major participants in some sectors, peculiarly plantations and fiscal establishments. In 1986, the authorities began privatising many entities, including telecommunications, the national electricity company, the national air hose and the authorities transporting house. For illustration, the authorities sold off its staying portions in Malaysia Airlines Systems ( MAS ) in 1994. Similarly, in 1995 the authorities sold its controlling involvement in Heavy Industries Corporation of Malaysia ( HICOM ) , proprietor of the national auto fabrication installations, to a private company. Seaports, authorities infirmaries and station offices are in assorted phases of denationalization. Malaysia supports planetary trade liberalisation steps and encourages direct foreign investing, peculiarly in export oriented fabrication and high tech merchandises. Malaysia # 8217 ; s 1996 federal budget reduced import duties on over 710 points and abolished import responsibilities and gross revenues revenue enhancement on 800 points of natural stuffs and equipment. Multinational corporations control a significant portion of the fabrication sector. U.S. and Nipponese houses dominate the production of electronic constituents ( Malaysia is the universe # 8217 ; s 3rd largest manufacturer of incorporate circuits ) , consumer electronics, and electrical goods. Foreign investors besides play of import functions in crude oil, fabrics, vehicle assembly, steel, cement, gum elastic merchandises, and electrical machinery. Entire US exports to Malaysia 1997 were 10,779,991,890. US entire exports in the same twelvemonth 689,182,431,220. Fiscal PolicyThe authorities follows a conservative fin ancial policy, really with a excess in its operating history. The authorities reduced the personal income revenue enhancement from a maximal revenue enhancement rate of 32 per centum to 30 per centum in the 1996 budget, conveying it to the same degree as the corporate income revenue enhancement rate. Monetary PolicyMalaysian pecuniary policy is aimed at commanding rising prices while supplying equal liquidness to excite economic growing. Monetary sums are controlled by the cardinal bank through its influence over involvement rates in the banking sector, unfastened market operations and, on occasion, alterations in modesty demands. Exchange Rate Policy Malaysia has a well unfastened foreign exchange government. The Malayan currency, the ringgit ( RM ) , floats against the U.S. dollar. Bank Negara ( the cardinal bank ) does non specifically nail down the ringgit, but does step in in the foreign exchange market to smooth out fluctuations and discourage guess on the ringgit. It by and l arge tracks the ringgit # 8217 ; s value against a trade-weighted basket of currencies in which the U.S. dollar has a big weighting. Bank Negara # 8217 ; s declared policy is to keep a stable exchange rate which reflects the currency # 8217 ; s true underlying value instead than to pull strings the rate to hike exports. Structural Policies Pricing PoliciesMost monetary values in Malaysia # 8217 ; s economic system are market determined, but the authorities controls monetary values of some cardinal goods, notably fuel, public utilities, cement, motor vehicles, rice, flour, sugar and baccy. Overall tariffs norm less than 10 per centum on a trade-weighted footing and import licences are required for a little scope of goods, e.g. , cars, meat, baccy and plastic rosins. Since 1993 the federal authorities has lowered or eliminated duties on over 5,200 points to defuse domestic rising prices and to run into committednesss in the Uruguay Round and the Association of South East Asiatic N ations ( ASEAN ) Free Trade Agreement ( AFTA ) . The agricultural sector, nevertheless, does incorporate some restrictive duties and Non-tariff barriers. For illustration, the authorities fixes floor monetary values for locally grown rice and baccy to promote domestic production and to hike down rural incomes. Despite this monetary value inducement, local rice production does non run into demand ; the exclusive authorised importer, a government-owned corporation, must import about 40 per centum of the state # 8217 ; s rice demands. Inthe instance of baccy, the authorities pushes coffin nail makers to utilize a high proportion of local baccy. Imports of baccy are restrained by high import responsibilities and controlled through import licences. Debt Management Policies Malaysia has a strong recognition evaluation in international fiscal markets ; most public and private companies seemingly have no trouble accessing financess. Malaysia # 8217 ; s foreign debt ( both populace and pri vate sector ) was around $ 27.4 billion at the terminal of 1995, approximately 32 per centum of GDP. Currently I am non certain what it is hundred Service BarriersMalaysia protects most service sectors. For illustration foreign attorneies, designers, etc. , are by and large non allowed to pattern in Malaysia. Financial ServicesBanking, insurance and stockbroking are all topic to authorities ordinance which limits foreign engagement. For illustration, no new banking licences are being granted for either local or foreign corporations ( with the exclusion of the Bank of China which reportedly will be allowed to open a subdivision. ) Foreign-controlled companies are required to obtain 60 per centum of their local recognition from Malayan Bankss. Worker Rights The Right of AssociationUnions may form workplaces, deal jointly with an employer, signifier federations, and fall in international organisations. As of 1994, there were 519 brotherhoods registered in Malaysia. A trade brotherhood for which enrollment has been refused, withdrawn or cancelled is considered an improper association. Strikes are legal and comparatively few ( 14 work stoppages in 1994 ) . Government policy places a de facto prohibition on the formation of brotherhoods in the electronics sector, but allows in-house brotherhoods. During Recession The authorities has taken a strong pro-active function in the development and industrialisation of the Malayan economic system. This has included important province sector investing, a close confederation between authorities and the private concern community, a steady tendency of privatising province endeavors, and a assortment of policies and plans to bolster the economic position of the Malay and autochthonal communities. While the authorities has taken important pre-emptive steps to beef up the fiscal system, Malaysia # 8217 ; s banking sector has come under increasing emphasis as non-performing loans continue to mount. Bankruptcies are on the rise, and several major Malayan corporations, burdened with heavy debt tonss, have late sought tribunal protection from creditors. Malaya, however, remains purpose on developing its ain solutions to the economic and fiscal crisis, and has resisted farther liberalisation of its economic system. The authorities late announced programs to set up a corporation to alleviate Bankss of their non-performing loans. On the financial side, it announced two economic stimulation bundles to increase authorities disbursement for substructure, wellness, instruction, and other countries.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Three Guineas Essay Example

Three Guineas Paper ‘Three Guineas’ by Virginia Woolf and ‘Testament of Youth’ by Vera Brittain Virginia Woolf and Vera Brittain are feminist writers who opposed war and military operation fighting for global peace and happiness. Their writings reflect anti-war ideas, views and possible solution to the problems, and appeal to readers though vivid images and emotional narration. Thesis On the other hand, Woolf and Brittain agree that education of women is the main source of resistance to war; on the other hand, they differ in their views on women’s role in international organizations and their political role as anti-war agents. Pacifism is the main theme which runs though both works. During World War I, an extreme masculine ideal of the intrepid combat-ready patriot, prepared not only to kill but to die for his country, held sway in the minds of many young men and in the population at large, despite pockets of resistance to this view. ‘Three Guineas’ is written as a series of letters devoted to different war problems and political issues. Woolf suggests ways and methods on how to prevent war and organize women in a strong political movement. She explains that feminism is a strong force which could help to stop military operations and oppose violence. She states that those who volunteer and the vast majority of those who are drafted are trained in military camps to accept a militarist ethos that hold that power and status come by subduing and controlling others. ‘Testament of Youth’ is an autobiographical work of Vera Brittain which portrays hardship and grievances faced by the author. At the beginning of the novel, Vera plans to enter the Oxford University and marry Roland Leighton. Unfortunately, the war begins and her brother Edward and Roland are commissioned. We will write a custom essay sample on Three Guineas specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Three Guineas specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Three Guineas specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer During WWI, Vera works as a nurse in a Voluntary Aid Department. After the war, she returns to Oxford but experience great emotional distress caused by war and deaths of her brother Edward and Roland. Both authors portray that because of their personal decision to reject soldiering, many World War I objectors experience extraordinarily brutal conditions under military authority. A number of memoirs attest to the strength of purpose that most objectors exemplified in light of such savage treatment and reveal the high price they paid for their stand. Both authors see war as a tremendous evil which ruins life and happiness of their families and children. The main difference between Woolf and Brittain is their approaches to anti-war movements and techniques used to oppose the war. Woolf supposes that women can enter international system taking an active part in public life and international agencies. Woolf describes that women’s league can help to prevent war playing an active role in international affairs and politics. Woolf (2003) writes â€Å"the main distinction between us who are outside society and you who are inside society must be that whereas you will make use of the means provided by your position—leagues, conferences, campaigns, great names, and all such public measures as your wealth and political influence place within your reach—we, remaining outside, will experiment not with public means in public but with private means in private†. Woolf state that women should be convinced that the creation of a new set of values about manliness, one that incorporated the ideal of a nonviolent New Man, constituted important peace work. They hoped that the future ability of the state to prosecute war would be compromised by their disruptive voices and actions. In contrast to Woolf, Brittain expresses the idea of medical assistance of women during the war. Brittain works in a Voluntary Aid Department during the war and describes her experience as: â€Å"I managed to extract approval from most of the nurses, †¦ I seized with avidity upon all the unpleasant tasks of which they were only too glad to be relieved, and took a masochistic delight in emptying bed-pans, washing greasy cups and spoons, and disposing of odoriferous dressings in the sink-room† (Brittain 1989 p. 34).

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Facts Of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson 1. Thomas Jefferson was born at Shadwell, his father’s Virginia plantation, April 13, 1743. (Brown, David xii 12) 2. Thomas Jefferson attends The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1760. (Brown, David xiii 13) 3. Thomas Jefferson started to study law in Williamsburg for five years in 1762. (Watts, Franklin 26-30) 4. Thomas Jefferson began to build his home, Monticello, at the mountaintop with land that he inherited by his father. (Miller 21-22) 5. Thomas Jefferson was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1768. (Brown xiii 13) 6. Thomas Jefferson Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772. (Schmittroth, Linda and Rosteck, Kay 250) 7. Thomas Jefferson writes a summary view of The Rights of British America in 1774. (Watts 51) 2 8. Thomas Jefferson was a member of the Committee of Correspondence in Virginia in 1774. ( 9. Thomas Jefferson was elected to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1775, which was adjourned in 1776. (Miller 1) 10. Thomas Jefferson writes The Declaration of Independence in 1776. (Brown 243) 11. Thomas Jefferson was appointed governor of Virginia in 1779. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 249) 12. Martha Jefferson dies in 1782 along with three of six children. (Watts 86) 13. Dolley Madison served as his first lady in the White House. ( 14. Thomas Jefferson accepted an appointment by Congress to serve at the peace commission in Paris, France, to work on a Treaty to end the Revolutionary War. (Miller 86-87) 15. Thomas Jefferson serves as a minister to France from 1785-1789. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 249) 16. Thomas Jefferson becomes the first US secretary of state in 1790. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 251) 17. Thomas Jefferson resigns as secretary of state in 1793. (Brown 245) 3 18. Thomas Jefferson was elected vice president of the United States in 1796. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 252) 19. Thomas Jefferson was the first inaugu... Free Essays on Facts Of Thomas Jefferson Free Essays on Facts Of Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson 1. Thomas Jefferson was born at Shadwell, his father’s Virginia plantation, April 13, 1743. (Brown, David xii 12) 2. Thomas Jefferson attends The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1760. (Brown, David xiii 13) 3. Thomas Jefferson started to study law in Williamsburg for five years in 1762. (Watts, Franklin 26-30) 4. Thomas Jefferson began to build his home, Monticello, at the mountaintop with land that he inherited by his father. (Miller 21-22) 5. Thomas Jefferson was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1768. (Brown xiii 13) 6. Thomas Jefferson Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772. (Schmittroth, Linda and Rosteck, Kay 250) 7. Thomas Jefferson writes a summary view of The Rights of British America in 1774. (Watts 51) 2 8. Thomas Jefferson was a member of the Committee of Correspondence in Virginia in 1774. ( 9. Thomas Jefferson was elected to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1775, which was adjourned in 1776. (Miller 1) 10. Thomas Jefferson writes The Declaration of Independence in 1776. (Brown 243) 11. Thomas Jefferson was appointed governor of Virginia in 1779. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 249) 12. Martha Jefferson dies in 1782 along with three of six children. (Watts 86) 13. Dolley Madison served as his first lady in the White House. ( 14. Thomas Jefferson accepted an appointment by Congress to serve at the peace commission in Paris, France, to work on a Treaty to end the Revolutionary War. (Miller 86-87) 15. Thomas Jefferson serves as a minister to France from 1785-1789. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 249) 16. Thomas Jefferson becomes the first US secretary of state in 1790. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 251) 17. Thomas Jefferson resigns as secretary of state in 1793. (Brown 245) 3 18. Thomas Jefferson was elected vice president of the United States in 1796. (Schmittroth & Rosteck 252) 19. Thomas Jefferson was the first inaugu...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Multiple Births Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Multiple Births - Essay Example An inconsistency during the 2nd trimester between the measured fundal height and gestational age of the fetus usually present a case of twin or multiple pregnancies. Clinical presentation of these pregnancies elicit size of fetus greater than the date by exam, fetal motion not detected until 18-20 weeks, elevated AFP results (Tharpe, 2006). Confirmation of such pregnancies is made through ultrasonographic examination. Complications: Several risks and complications are associated with multiple gestations including early pregnancy loss, low birth weight along with the occurrence of intra-uterine fetal demise, preterm labor and delivery (Levene and Chervenak, 2009). There is an increased prevalence of congenital anomalies in monozygotic twins. Brain anomalies like hydrocephaly and micro-cephaly are found to be associated with multiple pregnancies. Also, risk for intra-partum asphyxia is increased in second born due to frequent fetal mal-presentation leading to traumatic delivery. Risk of maternal morbidity is also enhanced in these pregnancies. Other maternal complications include induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, anemia, urinary tract infections, pre-eclampsia, ante-partum hemorrhage, post-partum hemorrhage and endometriosis (Littleton and Engebreston, 2002). According to Avery et al., (2005) in multiple births increased risk of intra-uterine growth retardation is reported which may be due to unequal sharing of placenta among fetuses. Consequently, usual problems associated with intra-uterine growth retardation like intra-partum asphyxia, polycythemia, hypoglycemia and pulmonary hemorrhage are witnessed. In 5% of the multiple pregnancies, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is observed which is due to vascular anastomosis between the circulations of monozygotic twins sharing the same placenta. The transfusions taking place in single direction may render the donor fetus anemic, while the recipient fetus becomes polycythemic. Eventually, either of the twin fetuses may become hydropic due to volume overload or anemia. In some severe cases, the donor twin may expire. Management: Patients with multi-fetal pregnancies are followed closely with ultrasonographic examination to assess fetal growths and development throughout her pregnancy. Patient m ay be hospitalized if she develops signs of preterm labor or other complications. Delivery room management of multiple births requires larger number of trained personal for resuscitation/CPR in case of preterm delivery and availability of blood as multi-fetal pregnancies experience frequent blood loss and may lead to post-partum hemorrhage (Gilstrip et al., 2002). Multiple births offer a challenge to nurses and health paramedics in delivery room. Where majority of multiple pregnancies should be delivered normally a caesarean section is suggested as a preferred mode of delivery (Levene and Chervenak, 2009). For a vaginal delivery, continuous electronic monitoring of the fetal vital signs, tolerance to labor (attained by fetal electronic heart beat monitor) and uterine activity should be done (Cruickshank and Shetty, 2009). Delivery should be done till 40th week of gestation because of increased risk of peri-natal morbidity after the due date. In the labor management of twin gestation prostaglandins or oxytocin can be administered to induce vaginal delivery (Creasy et al., 2004).

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Find all Details below Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Find all Details below - Research Paper Example Number of researches have been carried out to understand the role of these factors in the decision making process regarding various business related issues. However, most of these studies fail to provide a proper understanding regarding the effects of these factors in the context of a particular country. This paper includes a proposal of a research that will be conducted in order to gain insight into the role of different micro as well as macro environmental factors that are likely to impact the businesses which are operating in Australia. This research proposal is consisted of the principle aims and objectives of the research. Furthermore, it also includes the literature review, thesis structure as well as the expected outcomes of the actual research that will be carried out in near future. The research is expected to be very useful for the individuals from the both industry and academia as the focus will be on a particular country i.e. Australia. Purpose and Aims The central aim of the research is to identify the major macro and micro economic factors that are capable of influencing a particular organization in Australia. In addition to this another main objective of this research is to find out the ways in which the decision making process regarding the marketing of a particular company or its product or brand can be impacted by these factors. The main focus of the research will be on the strategic marketing decisions of a firm in a sense that how such decisions are impacted by the various environmental factors. The major research questions are properly mentioned below – 1. What are the major micro and macro environmental factors that are capable of impacting the business in Australia? 2. How the macro and micro economic environment of Australia impact the strategic marketing decisions of an organization in the particular country? Literature Review Success or failure of any research is greatly impacted by the theoretical base of it. In order to analyz e the theoretical background, a review of literature is conducted. No research can be said to be a completed one without the proper review of literature. As far as this research is concerned there are several theoretical aspects that will be properly analyzed. Two of the most important aspects in the context of this research are strategic marketing and macro and micro environmental factors. Preliminary study shows that marketing decisions at the strategic level make significant difference. On the other hand there are number of macro environmental factors such as culture, politics, economy, technology, society etc. that may influence the performance of a marketing campaign. Extensive literature regarding strategic marketing as well as several of the above mentioned factors is likely to be available in different books, journals and magazines. These sources can be accessed both online as well as offline. However, investigation regarding the academic theory of these aspects should be ma de limited. Marketing is a vast concept and hence it is not feasible to get into all the aspects of it. In fact, the focus will be on strategic marketing while searching the literature. On the other side, only relevant literature will be searched

Monday, November 18, 2019

Engaging Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Engaging - Term Paper Example Every one of us has free time which we could donate to a Children Hospital ward. The kids to whom we read simple stories and/or expectant mothers whom we advised not to take the drugs that the doctors prescribed to them since they would give birth to children suffering from Neonatal abstience Syndrome may have not shown gratitude, but each boon we gave strengthened the pillars of the world. Even if the expectant mothers did not thank us for our gift, the gift we gave them is upholding the foundation of the universe. Whereas our gift and the beneficiaries should be considered, our reward, once decided on, should be without concern, brimful one minute and over and done the next. Hence, our intention was to dispense charity rather than philanthropy (Timothy 1-25) We live in a world in which, in effect, children at the children hospital ward and/or mothers at the children hospital ward need more charity or the moral equivalent of it are ubiquitous, and thank to the existence of system of organizational aid already in place, we are for all time in the position of being better placed to act to save some of the many individuals whose lives are at stake. The rationale that we hold on to that we are supposed to donate our few hours or minutes to a children hospital ward, though through, generalizes and becomes a standard of beneficence that could be called the principle of sacrifice. However, moral limitation of a deontological of variety might restrict the ethical demands of beneficence. For instance, when we donated our time by visiting the children hospital and helping out the expectant mothers by giving them the advice that they should not take the drugs prescribed to them: we had confined ourselves to circumstances in which whatever ethical r estriction there are did not have a bearing on our circumstance. But the concern was how we were going to use resources we legitimately

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Organotin (IV) Compounds: Chemistry, Properties and Uses

Organotin (IV) Compounds: Chemistry, Properties and Uses Introduction 1.1 Tin Element It is undeniably that many research and studies had been done in the field of organotin chemistry for the past half century. Sn which is symbol bared by tin which is called as stannum in Latin. It is placed on group 14 and period 5 in the periodic table with atomic number of 50. It has an electronic configuration of [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The table 1.1 below show properties of tin (Davies, et al., 2008).The chemical properties was shared similarity with germanium and lead. Moreover, tin form compounds which has +2 and +4 as its oxidation number with +4 has slightly higher stability. Hence, formation of tetrahedral tin atoms occur when four valence electrons involved in the sp3 hybridization. Table 1.1: Tin Properties (Davies, et al., 2008) Based on Tin Chemistry: Fundamentals, Frontiers and Application, it was stated that tin has the stable isotopes of ten and also with the highest number of any element in the periodic table of isotopes. Thus, tin exhibit vary characteristic of the mass spectra. From on the table 1.2 shown below, it appear that both isotopes of 117 and 119 with spin of  ½ are used in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Davies, et al., 2008). Table 1.2: Stable isotopes of Tin (Davies, et al., 2008. p. 3) It is found that metallic tin occur in two states which is ÃŽ ±-tin and ÃŽ ²-tin. The ÃŽ ²-tin exists as distorted cubic structure and function as electric conductor. Whereas, ÃŽ ±-tin is formed when ÃŽ ²-tin is converted slowly at temperature below 10 °C. Besides that, ÃŽ ±-tin exits as a diamond structure which have the properties as a semiconductor. The physical appearances of tin is white and possess inertness at ambient temperature. However, tin will only undergo oxidation to SnO2 at 200 °C since it is a malleable post transition metal (Davies, et al., 2008). 1.2 History of Tin Tin has been discovered around 3500 BC and it is known as an element that strengthen copper by forming copper-tin alloy which actually begin as early as Bronze Age civilization. The tin present in surface of Earth is only approximately 2 ppm which is far lesser compared to zinc, copper and lead. The production of tin mainly from mining and smelting (Davies, 2004). In 1849, gives the birth of the first organotin(IV) compound, diethyltin diiodide synthesized by Edward Frankland which ultimately set as a new era in the field of tin chemistry. Frankland basically studies the behavior of the reaction between ethyl iodide and zinc heated in a sealed tube. It was that time found out that the decomposition of iodide of ethyl is affected by tin at the range of temperature between 150 °C to 200 °C (Davies, 2004). Threfore, his research practically set as a seed for further studies and was further stimulated around 1949 when various application of tin was discovered. Truly structural changes of compounds between the solution and solid states plays a crucial role in the organotin(IV) chemistry and its applications. In early studies of the 60s and 70s, Mà ¶ssbauer spectrosocopy was used to determine the sturcture of the complexes. Nevertheless, it is now been dominantly used with X-ray crstallography and 119Sn NMR due to better technology and resolution (Davies, 2004). 1.3 Preparation of Organotin(IV) Carboxylates Organotin(IV) carboxylates’s formula is RnSn(O2CRËÅ  )4-n . The complexes can be produced by reacting organotin(IV) oxide or hyrdroxide with comparable carboxylic acid. (equation 1.1 to1.3) R3SnOH or (R3Sn)2O + RËÅ  COOHà ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   R3SnOOCRËÅ   + H2O (1.1) R2SnO + 2RËÅ  COOR à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   R2Sn(OOCRËÅ  )2 + H2O (1.2) RSn(O)OH + 3RËÅ  COOH à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   RSN(OOCRËÅ  )3 (1.3) Esterification reaction is accomplished between organotin(IV) oxides or hydroxides and carboxylic acids by azeotrophic dehydration. The above equations’ reactions will depend on the mixing of different mole ratio of acid and base with appropriate solvent. The side products, water was removed by Dean-Stark apparatus and molecular sieve. Furthermore, organotin(IV) carboxylates can be prepared by reacting organotin(IV) chloride with metal carboxylates. (equation 1.4). Meanwhile, when a tin-carbon cleaved with carboxylic acid, it can also produce organotin(IV) carboxylates or cleaved with mercury(I) or mercury (II), or lead (IV) carboxylate as shown below (Davies, 2004). (equation 1.5-1.6) RnSnCI4-n + 4-nRËÅ  COOM à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   RnSn(OOCRËÅ  )4-n + 4-nMCI (1.4) R4Sn + RËÅ  COOHà ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   R3SnOOCRËÅ   +RH (1.5) R4Sn + RËÅ  COOM à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   R3SnOOCRËÅ   +RM (1.6) 1.4Structures of Triorganotin(IV) Complexes Basically the general formula for triorganotin(IV) complexes would be R3SnX and it is widely studied. This is due to the higher biological activity of triorganotin(IV) complexes compared to diorganotin(IV) complexes. The R group highly influence the biocidal activities as it contains three Sn-C whereas their volatility and solubility is affected by the X group (Kizlink, 2001). The toxicity also decreases with a decrease of organic groups bind to the tin atom. However, reviews indicated that X group itself is active biologically and an increased of aqueous solubility will lead to increased of activity (Davies, et al., 2008). Meanwhile, chelation of triorganotin monomer or polymer with a five coordination leads to a decreased of activities (Davies, et al., 2008). 1:1 molar ratio of carboxylic acid and triorganoitn(IV) base are used to prepare triorganotin(IV) complexes (IMTIAZ-UD-DIN and BADSHAH, 2010; Win, 2012). There are two main types of structures possess by triorganotin(IV) complexes which is chain and discrete structures. Figure 1.1 shows frequent occuring stuctures of triorganotin(IV) complexes with different coordination geometries (Hadjikakou and Hadjiliadis, 2009). Figure 1.1: Frequent occurring structures in triorganotin(IV) complexes (A-C) (Hadjikakou and Hadjiliadis, 2009. p. 236) At figure 1.1, complexes A to C falls on the category of discrete structures. It is commonly found that Ar3SnO2CRËÅ   exhibit discrete structures such as triphenyltin carboxylates. Complexes A shows possible dicarboxylate ligand that can form a linear polymer by bridging triorganotin(IV) groups. Complexes B is a structure that closely resemble to trigonal bipyramid containing two equivalent CO bonds with facial alkyl groups whereas complexes C shows tetrahedral geometry with two non-equivalent CO bonds. The axial sites for complexes A to C are all occupied by O-Sn-O electronegative substituents (Davies, et al., 2008). 1.5Tin Application It is undeniably that tin compounds have contributed and played a crucial role in various fields such as its property as an anticancer agent, in vitro anti-bacterial, wood preservatives, pesticides etc (Davies, et al., 2008). The main focus of tin application would be its organotin complexes due to its biologically active compounds in potentially lowering cancerous cells. Therefore, tremendous focus have actually diverted to anti-cancer field though it’s still have a wide applications. Table 1.3Industrial uses of organotin(IV) compounds (Omae, 2002) 1.5.1Agriculture Triorganotin(IV) compounds are proven to be extremely useful in agricultural and industry as they act as fungicides, molluscides, acaricides ,biocides and pesticides based on the research and reviews conducted (Kizlink, 2001; Nath, et al., 2013). For examples, toxicity towards insects and mammals are contributed by trimethyltins whereas Gram-negative bacteria are affected by tri-n-propyltins. In addition, tri-n-butyltin and triphenyltin compounds are effective against fungi. Presence of triorganotins pose as a lethal to mosquitoes and their larvae. Moreover,tributytin chloride act as an strong repellent for rodents in crops. Besides that, snails control is affected by both triphenyltin acetate and triphenyltin chloride as molluscicides. This will help to prevent schistosome infections in human (Piver, 1973). According to Kizlink studies, the presence of n-butyl, phenyl and cyclohexyl groups will greatly increase the biocidal activity (Davies, et al., 2008). Tricyclohexyltin hydroxide and trineophenyltin oxide acts as a acaricides which are used on citrus and vegetable crops though they are not conditioned to resistance environment (Batt, 2006). Whereas triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide and triphenytltin(IV) acetate are used in high value crops when there is potential for the crops to be infected such as early blight, Alternaria solani (GUENTHNER, et al., 2000). Therefore, the common crops used for fungicides are potatoes, pecans etc. With all the advantageous as biocides, ,little did people know that when triorganotin(IV) compunds are capable of adsorbed into the soil. This will eventually lead to contamination of surface water due to runoff (Okoro, et al., 2011). 1.5.2 Anti-cancer Activity In 1965, platinum complexes which is known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum or cisplatin that characterized anti-proliferative activity has been discovered by Rosenberg (Alama, et al., 2009). Since then, platinum (II) complexes has been used as anti-cancer agent (Lippard and Jamieson, 1999). Regardless of its success, conducted studies has shown that it possess side effects (Langer, et al., 2013). Therefore, a non-platinum metal complexes field has been been prompted to studied with continual investigation of new complexes as antitumor drugs. Besides that, there has been many reviews and studies on organotin carboxylates due to its antitumor potential. Generally, triorganotin(IV) complexes had been widely known to possess superior activity than diorganotin deriavatives (Baul, et al., 2005; Ali, et al., 2011; Yip, et al., 2012). This rules apply to some of the activties and had been recognized as R3SnL > R2SnL2 > RSnL3. Literature had indicated that triphenyltin(IV) complexes have remarkable activty in in vitro antitumor against human mamary tumour (MCF-7) and colon carcinoma (WIDR) (Baul, et al., 2009). It is also reported that the actvity of triphenyltin(IV) complexes are higher than other complexes with p-hydroxybenzoic acids. This is because of the high values of half inhibitory concentration (IC50) lipoxygenase inhibition compared to organitins(IV) and also reference cisplastin. Besides that, the inhibition of lipoxygenase and the activity of anti-proliferative against smooth muscle tumor, a leiomyosarcoma cells are higher for triorganitin(IV) compounds compared to diorganotin(IV) compounds (Nu, Li and Li, 2014). High lipophilic behaviour ,ability to penetrate cell membrane and promotion of binding to biological molecules due to its phenyls group of triorganotin(IV) carboxylates showed high cytotoxic activity further confirms its impressive cytotoxicity in vitro against human lung cell line and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Ma, et al., 2014). Furthermore, spontaneous disproportionation reactions in solution may undergone by triorganotin(IV) derivatives into di- and tetraorganotin(IV) derivatives. In the mean time, lost of alkyl or aryl group may happened in in vivo during interception of aromatase enzyme. Therefore, there is possibility to recognize diorganotin(IV) complexes might be the ultimatum of cytotoxic agent and pharmacokinetic considerations in relation to commonly observed triorganotin(IV) compounds’ high activity (Alama, et al., 2009). The organotin carboxylates can be further studied by exploring the ligand of the carboxylic acid, coordination number of the central tin atoms which play a crucial role in determine factor of the anti-tumor activity or cytotoxicity properties (Hadjikakou and Hadjiliadis, 2009; Ding, et al., 2012; Thorpe, et al., 2013). In conclusion, simultaneous in researching leads to potential in discovery in designing new anticancer drugs which will greatly help in our advancement in the medical field. 1.5.3 Antifouling Exploit of trioganotin(IV) compounds can be used as a biocidal agent in anti-fouling paints for ships. In fact, tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO) is the first organotin compound to be discover for its properties. The function of anti-fouling systems is to coat and paint ships that acts as protective layer in order to inhibit attachment of Chlamydomas sp. or acorn barnacles. Shipping industry will face a serious problem if marine fouling occur due to increased surface roughness and resistance in water. Therefore, a consumption of 40% of fuel is needed to maintain the normal speed (Omae, 2003). Furthermore, triorganotin(IV) compounds are resistance towards corrosion on aluminum hulls which is why it is favoured. Besides that the ability of tributyltin oxide to mix with pain solvents as a colorless liquid can be used in many biocidal applications. However, tributyltin oxide is highly soluble in seawater and thus giving a short term protection. Whereas, triphenyltin(IV) fluoride has become a common antifungal paint due to its long life protection from algae and shells (Omae, 2003). Even though both tributyltin oxide and triphenyltin(IV) fluoride made a good antifouling paint, studies had shown that they contribute contamination to the aquatic environment (Hartl, 2012). It was suggested that biocides release is caused by high pressure hosing activities in which the paint particles become attached with the sediments and also leaching (Konstantinou and Albanis, 2004) 1.5.4 Wood preservatives It is undeniable that wood is a precious gift from the mother nature and serves as as a wide applicant in the world. Specific wood species are needed for construction due its superior physical, mechanical and aesthetically pleasing performance (Jusoh, 2012). However, not all wood species are durable for outdoor activities. Therefore, organotin(IV) compounds are set as a wood preservatives such as tributyltin(IV) oxide and tributyltin(IV) naphthenate. Based on Kizlink research in year 2000, triorganotin(IV) compounds are found to inhibit the growth of mycelium from wood-destroying fungi Coniophora puteana, Serpula lacrymans and mould suspensions. It is reported that butyl group in n-alkyi chains contained by triorganotin(IV) compounds such as bis(tributyltin) oxide and tributyltin N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate is highly effective against fungi. On the other hand, inhibitory activity of fungicides of triphenyltin(IV) compounds appear to be lower than tributyltin(IV) compounds. This studies indicated and proven that smaller molecular volume of R3Sn have a better establisment to the site of inhibitory action compared to bigger molecular volume. Whereas in the studies of Jusoh, it was suggested that Alstonia schlaris, Macaranga triloba and Hevea brasiliensis were preserved succesfully by organotin(IV) compounds. This results would be further supported by the binding of tin compounds with the wood cell from the FTIR spectra which serves as a preservations of treatability of the specific wood species. 1.5.5 Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) stabilizers The degradation of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) or oxygenolysis occur at lower temperature of its processing temperature. Thus, conjugation of double bonds are established and the decomposition will release hydrogen chloride (HCI) which then be reduced by heat stabilizers through absorption (Arkis and Balkose, 2004; Wang, et al., 2014). The stabilizers are composed of mono or di-disubstituted organotin(IV) compounds which usually added to pipes, films and packing materials due to their thermal stability (Nu, Li and Li, 2014). Common PVC stabilizers can be differentiated with their alkyl group of organotins which is methyl, butyl and octyl (Okoro, et al., 2011). Since the toxicity of monoorganotin stabilizers towards mammals are extremely low, they are widely used with an added advantage of low raw material cost. On the other hand, the efficiency of octyltins are lesser due to its lower tin content (Batt, 2006). According to Songwon in 2013 by Tin Intermediates Selection Guide, the examples of organtin(IV) complex used as a heat stabilizers is butyltin(IV) mercaptide, dibutyltin(IV) dilaurate, monobutyltin tris(2-ethylhexanoate) and dioctyltin mercaptide. Tin mercaptides are found to be the most desired due to its high efficiency acting as a weak acid reacting with labile chloride sites on PVC. Besides that, solubility of the stabilizer and lubrication in polymer processing is enhanced by the high molecular weights and ester group in mercaptan ligands (Batt, 2006). 1.6 Other usage of Organotin(IV) compounds Besides organotin(IV) compounds acts as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, it also has mothproofing properties to treated fabrics such as bis(tributyltin) oxide. This is due the advantage of being lacking of color and staining. Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria found in hospital also can be controlled by chemical bis(tributyltin) oxide (Piver, 1973). Diorganotin(IV) compounds are used as catalysts to in process of forming polyurethane and silicon elastomers (Okoro, et al., 2011). Dibutyltin(IV) compounds such as diibutytin(IV) dilaurate is responsible in controlling tapeworms for poultry such as Raillietina cesticillus. 1.7 Effects of Organotin(IV) compounds Humans are affected by organotins consumption of contaminated food, waters from pipelines of PVC or inhalation from agricultural activities and industry processes. The symptoms includes liver damage, loss of weight and neurological disorder. Birds are affected by their uptake of food in which their body structure, diet and metabolism of butyltin determines the accumulation in their tissues. Tri-n-butyltin oxide will greatly impact the immunological system and hormones activities of the birds. Whereas the entrance of organotins to fishes is through uptake of water from the gills and diet factor. The toxic effects would be on the red blood cells, gills and liver in the presence of tributyltin(IV) compounds(Namiesnik, et al., 2013). Another evidence was proved by studying chronic toxicity of organotin(IV) compounds by observing gastropods as subjects. It was found that gastropods exhibit imposex which can be defined as having male organs such as penis in a female species even with low concentration of tributyltins. This literally means that contamination of organotins greatly affects all biological living species (Omae. 2002) 1.8 Objectives The main objectives of this research is to synthesis (4-amino-3,5-dichlorobenzoato)triphenyltin(IV) from the reaction between 4-amino-3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid with triphenyltin(IV) oxide. The second objective of this research is to study the characterization of the synthesized complexes through determination of melting point, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as KBR dics, 119Sn, 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Spectroscopy (NMR) with the means of quantitatively and qualitatively. The third objective for this study is to determine the structure and coordination geometry of the tin moiety carboxylates. Molar ratio of the reactants, polarity of solvent, temperature of refluxing etc. will contribute to the effects of coordination number and binding mode of the ligand to the tin atom which will be investigated.